Monovalent type 2 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV2) stockpile is low. One potential strategy to stretch the existing mOPV2 supply is to administer a reduced dose: one-drop instead of two-drops.
We conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label, non-inferiority trial (10% margin) to compared immunogenicity following administration of one versus two-drops of mOPV2. We enrolled 9-22-months old infants from Mocuba district of Mozambique. Poliovirus neutralizing antibodies were measured in sera collected before and one month after mOPV2 administration. Immune response was defined as seroconversion from seronegative (1:8) after vaccination or boosting titers by >4-fold for those with titers between 1:8 and 1:362 at baseline. The trial was registered at anzctr.org.au (number ACTRN12619000184178p).
We enrolled 378 children and 262 (69%) completed per-protocol requirements. Immune response of mOPV2 was 53.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 44.9%-62.1%) and 60.6% (95% CI: 52.2%-68.4%) in 1-drop and 2-drops recipients, respectively. The non-inferiority margin of the 10% was not reached (difference=7.0%; 95%CI= -5.0-19.0).
A small loss of immunogenicity of reduced mOPV2 was observed. Although the non-inferiority target was not achieved, the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on Immunization, recommended the 1-drop strategy as a dose-sparing measure if mOPV2 supplies deteriorate further.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.