Female Genital Tuberculosis (FGTB) causes infertility in a large number of females in developing countries. Presence of granuloma on histopathological examination of endometrial samples is diagnostic of FGTB. But immunohistochemical evaluation of endometrial aspirates has not been explored before.
To evaluate the immunohistochemical delineation of immune cells in FGTB.
1515 infertile women from 20 to 35 years were enrolled and underwent endometrial aspiration (EA), which was subjected to microbiological and histopathological examination along with PCR. Patients positive for conventional tests like granulomas, acid fast bacilli, mycobacterial culture on LJ medium or liquid (MGIT) culture were started on antitubercular therapy. Conventional test negative but PCR positive patients were posted for laparoscopy. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) for LCA, CD68, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD 20, CD138, IFN gamma and IL10 were evaluated.
38/1515 (2.5%) subjects tested positive for conventional methods. PCR-TB was positive in 615/1515 samples (40.59%). On IHC, the number of CD45 (LCA) positive immune cells (p = 0.03) and IFN gamma (p = 0.002) and IL10 expression (p = 0.012) at 1 + level were higher in the PCR positive samples. Laparoscopy done in 418/463 patients and 89/418 (21.3%) showed definitive findings of tuberculosis. CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD68 and CD138 showed no correlation with PCR and laparoscopy.
Increased IFN gamma and IL 10 expressing immune cells in PCR positive EA suggests subclinical early changes, and can be useful as a research tool but have no role in diagnosing FGTB.

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