Immune disorders, involving both innate and adaptive response, are common in patients with end-stage renal disease under chronic hemodialysis. Endogenous and exogenous factors, such as uremic toxins and the extracorporeal treatment itself, alter the immune balance, leading to chronic inflammation and higher risk of cardiovascular events. Several studies have previously described the immune effects of chronic hemodialysis and the possibility to modulate inflammation through more biocompatible dialyzers and innovative techniques. On the other hand, very limited data are available on the possible immunological effects of a single hemodialysis treatment. In spite of the lacking information about the immunological reactivity related to a single session, there is evidence to indicate that mediators of innate and adaptive response, above all complement cascade and T cells, are implicated in immune system modulation during hemodialysis treatment. Expanding our understanding of these modulations represents a necessary basis to develop pro-tolerogenic strategies in specific conditions, like hemodialysis in septic patients or the last session prior to kidney transplant in candidates for receiving a graft.