Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection contributes to hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) with severe neurogenic complications, leading to higher morbidity. In addition to their typical roles in coagulation, platelets could serve as essential immune regulatory cells to play a key role in the pathogenesis of this viral infection.
Platelet parameters were measured using an automatic hematology analyzer. T-helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells were analyzed by flow cytometry. The levels of cytokines and key transcription factors were determined.
The levels of platelet count and plateletcrit were positively associated with the severity of HFMD. Th1 and Th2 cells as well as their corresponding cytokines were increased in the severe group compared to the healthy volunteers. Moreover, the levels of platelets were negatively correlated with the level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), but positively correlated with the frequency of Th1 cells. Coculture of platelets and naive CD4 T cells showed that platelets from mild patients promote Th1 cell differentiation and IFN-γ secretion.
Our study has shown for the first time that the distinct roles of platelets are responsible for the regulation of pathogenic CD4 T cell differentiation and function in the pathogenesis of HFMD caused by EV71.
Our study has shown for the first time that the distinct roles of platelets are responsible for the regulation of pathogenic CD4 T cell differentiation and function in the pathogenesis of HFMD caused by EV71.For the first time, we have discovered the role of platelets in children’s HFMD caused by EV71 infection, which may provide a better treatment for HFMD in the future.This article describes new discoveries in platelet immunity.

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PubMed