Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major comorbid disease of Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease (MAC-PD). Emphysema is one of the main pathological findings in COPD, a risk factor for chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA), and is associated with poor prognosis. We aimed to clarify the effect of emphysema on mortality in MAC-PD.
We retrospectively analyzed 203 patients with MAC-PD at The Jikei Daisan Hospital between January 2014 and December 2018. We investigated the mortality and CPA development rates after MAC-PD diagnosis in patients with or without emphysema.
Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed the following negative prognostic factors in patients with MAC-PD: emphysema (hazard ratio [HR]: 11.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-100.90; P = 0.028); cavities (HR: 3.12; 95% CI: 1.22-7.94; P = 0.017); and low body mass index (<18.5 kg/m) (HR: 4.62; 95% CI: 1.63-13.11; P = 0.004). The mortality and occurrence of CPA were higher in MAC-PD patients with than without emphysema (log-rank test, P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001).
Our study findings showed that emphysema detected by computed tomography was associated with an increased risk of CPA development and mortality in MAC-PD.

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