Oxidative stress in humans is related to various pathophysiological processes, which can manifest in numerous diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and Alzheimer’s disease. On the atomistic level, oxidative stress causes posttranslational modifications, thus inducing structural and functional changes into the proteins structure. This study focuses on fibrinogen, a blood plasma protein that is frequently targeted by reagents causing posttranslational modifications in proteins. Fibrinogen was in vitro modified by three reagents, namely sodium hypochlorite, malondialdehyde, and 3-morpholinosydnonimine that mimic the oxidative stress in diseases. Newly induced posttranslational modifications were detected via mass spectrometry. Electron microscopy was used to visualize changes in the fibrin networks, which highlight the extent of disturbances in fibrinogen behavior after exposure to reagents. We used molecular dynamics simulations to observe the impact of selected posttranslational modifications on the fibrinogen structure at the atomistic level. In total, 154 posttranslational modifications were identified, 84 of them were in fibrinogen treated with hypochlorite, 51 resulted from a reaction of fibrinogen with malondialdehyde, and 19 were caused by 3-morpholinosydnonimine. Our data reveal that the stronger reagents induce more posttranslational modifications in the fibrinogen structure than the weaker ones, and they extensively alter the architecture of the fibrin network. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that the effect of posttranslational modifications on fibrinogen secondary structure varies from negligible alternations to serious disruptions. Among the serious disruptions is the oxidation of γR375 resulting in the release of Ca2+ ion that is necessary for appropriate fibrin fiber formation. Folding of amino acids γE72-γN77 into a short α-helix is a result of oxidation of γP76 to glutamic acid. The study describes behaviour of fibrinogen coiled-coil connecter in the vicinity of plasmin and hementin cleavage sites.
Mixed-beam approach for high-risk prostate cancer: Carbon-ion boost followed by photon intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Dosimetric and geometric evaluations (AIRC IG-14300).
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- ACC 2020The American College of Cardiology decided to cancel ACC.20/WCC due to COVID-19, which was scheduled to take place March 28-30 in Chicago. However, ACC.20/WCC Virtual Meeting continues to release cutting edge science and practice changing updates for cardiovascular professionals on demand and free through June 2020.
- Psych Congress 2019The annual Psych Congress, held in San Diego, California, from October 3-6, 2019, brings together members of the entire mental health team, including psychiatrists, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, psychologists, and primary care physicians, with experts in mental health to improve patient outcomes through education.