Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of T2DM on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis. A total of 221NAFLD patients who had undergone a liver biopsy were included in this study. Subjects were divided into a non-T2DM group and a T2DM group based on glycemic control. NASH was diagnosed by the joint presence of steatosis, ballooning and lobular inflammation. The steatosis, activity and fibrosis score (SAF) and NAFLD activity score (NAS) were used to evaluate the severity of NAFLD. The severity of liver fibrosis was evaluated based on the fibrosis stage. The total percentagesof NASH and advanced fibrosis in this study were 95.0% and 50.2%, respectively. The percentages of NASH and advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients with T2DM were 96.1% and56.5%, respectively, which were higher than those in the non-T2DM group. SAF (especially activity and fibrosis stage) and NAS (especially ballooning) were higher in NAFLD patients with T2DM than in NAFLD patients without T2DM. Glycemic control and insulin resistance were positively associated with SAF, NAS, and fibrosis stage. Additionally, T2DM elevated the risk of a high NAS and advanced fibrosis. T2DM increases the risk of serious NASH and advanced fibrosis in patients with NAFLD. Liver biopsy can be performed in NAFLD patients with T2DM to confirm the stage of NAFLD. Screening of NASH and advanced fibrosis in NAFLD patients with T2DM is needed.
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