Implantoplasty (IP) is a treatment option for peri-implantitis. Mechanical concerns were raised on fracture resistance of implants subjected to this procedure. This study aimed to compare two methods of IP in terms of implant wear and fracture resistance, and of surface topography.
18 cylindrical screw-shaped dental implants (4 mm diameter, 13 mm length) with an external hexagonal connection were used. IP was performed on the first 6-mm implant surface with a sequence of burs or diamond sonic tips, both followed by an Arkansas finishing. IP duration and implant weight variation were recorded. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) was used to evaluate material loss. Implant fracture resistance was assessed by static compression test. Surface topography analysis was performed with a stylus profilometer. Scanning electron microscopy – energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) was applied for implant surface morphology and elemental characterization.
Micro-CT showed less material loss in sonic compared to burs. No statistically significant difference was found between the mean fracture resistance values reached in bur and sonic, both followed by Arkansas, and with respect to control. IP performed with burs led to a smoother surface compared to sonic. Equivalent final surface roughness was found after Arkansas in both IP procedures. SEM-EDS showed a deburring effect associated to sonic, and revealed carbon and aluminium peaks attributable to contamination with sonic diamond tips and Arkansas bur, respectively.
IP with sonic diamond tips was found to be more conservative in terms of structure loss. This could have a clinical relevance in case of narrow-diameter implants.

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