Oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of vascular diseases. Among others, oxidative stress promotes endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated ageing and remodelling of vasculature. Lately, NADPH oxidases have been demonstrated to be involved in cardiovascular diseases. NADPH oxidase 5 has emerged as a new player in oxidative stress-mediated endothelial alterations, involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension, diabetes, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke. This oxidase seems to mediate its detrimental effects by promoting inflammation. NADPH oxidase 5 has been studied in a lesser extent compared with the other members of the NADPH oxidase family due to its loss in the rodent genome, the main experimental research model. In addition, its potential as a therapeutic target remains unexplored given the lack of specific inhibitors. In this review the latest findings on NADPH oxidase 5 regulation, implications in vascular pathophysiology and therapeutic approaches will be updated.Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.