Skin cancer is the most common cancer worldwide, with rapidly increasing incidence and consistent mortality. Skin cancer encompasses melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, which in turn is mainly divided into cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma. Small noncoding micro-RNAs (miRNAs) regulate protein expression after transcription and play a role in the development and progression of skin cancer. Deregulated expression of miRNAs in skin cancer is associated with cell proliferation, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, immune response, and drug resistance. Specific patterns of miRNAs in specific skin cancer types can be used as diagnostic markers. For therapeutic purposes, both miRNA and chemically modified variants thereof as well as miRNA antagonists (antagomiRs) or RNA inhibitors may be applied topically. Due to their specific physicochemical properties, physical or chemical diffusion promoters are used with varying degrees of success. There is no question by now that such preparations have a high potential for the treatment of epithelial skin tumors in particular.© 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.