Multiple sclerosis is recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) plays an important role in initiating adaptive immune responses. HLA class I is present in almost all nucleated cells and presents the cleaved endogenous peptide antigens to cytotoxic T cells. HLA-A*03 is one of the HLA class I alleles, which is reported as substantially related HLA to MS disease. In 2011, the structure of the HLA-A*03 in complex was identified with an immunodominant proteolipid protein (PLP) epitope (KLIETYFSK). This complex has been reported as an important autoantigen-presenting complex in MS pathogenesis. In this study, new peptides were designed to bind to this complex that may prevent specific pathogenic cytotoxic T cell binding to this autoantigen-presenting complex and CNS demyelination. Herein, 14 new helical peptides containing 19 amino acids were designed and their structures were predicted using the PEP-FOLD server. The binding of each designed peptide to the mentioned complex was then performed. A mutation approach was used by the BeAtMuSiC server to improve the binding affinity of the designed peptide. In each position, amino acid substitutions leading to an increase in the binding affinity of the peptide to the mentioned complex were determined. Finally, the resulting complexes were simulated for 40 ns using AMBER18 software. The results revealed that out of 14 designed peptides, “WRYWWKDWAKQFRQFYRWF” peptide exhibited the highest affinity for binding to the mentioned complex. This peptide can be considered as a potential drug to control multiple sclerosis disease in patients carrying the HLA-A*03 allele.
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