Surgery remains the most preferred treatment options for colorectal cancer (CRC). Paradoxically, local recurrence and distant metastasis are usually accelerated postsurgery as a consequence of local and systemic immunosuppression caused by surgery. Therefore, modulating tumor postoperative immune microenvironment and activating systemic antitumor immunity are necessary supplementaries for CRC therapy. Here, an in-situ-sprayed immunotherapeutic gel loaded with anti-OX40 antibody (iSGels@aOX40) is reported for CRC postsurgical treatment. The iSGel is formed instantly after spraying with strong adhesion ability via crosslinking between tannic acid (TA) and poly(l-glutamic acid)-g-methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)/phenyl boronic acid (PLG-g-mPEG/PBA). TA not only serves as one component of the iSGel but also relieves the postsurgical immunosuppressive microenvironment by inhibiting the activity of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2). The aOX40 serves as an immune agonistic antibody and is released from the iSGel in a constant manner lasting for over 20 days. In a subcutaneous murine CRC model, the iSGels@aOX40 results in complete inhibition on tumor recurrence. In addition, the cured mice show resistance to tumor re-challenge, suggesting that immune memory effects are established after the iSGels@aOX40 treatment. In an orthotopic CRC peritoneal metastatic model, the iSGels@aOX40 also remarkably inhibits the growth of the abdominal metastatic tumors, suggesting great potential for clinical CRC therapy.
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