The authors sought to evaluate 10-year national trends, incidence and clinical outcomes of stroke in CS-STEMI.
Stroke is a devastating complication among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Concomitant cardiogenic shock (CS) may further increase the risk of stroke. Use of percutaneous mechanical circulatory support (pMCS) devices may further increase stroke risk in CS-STEMI. No studies have evaluated the risk of stroke in contemporary CS-STEMI.
We performed a retrospective cohort study of CS-STEMI patients from a large U.S. national database between 2005 and 2014. Previously validated codes for stroke were used to identify events of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. They were then divided into different groups: without MCS, with intra-aortic balloon pump, percutaneous ventricular assist device (PVAD, includes Impella or TandemHeart devices), or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
In 172,491 admissions, stroke was noted in 5,613 (3.2%). Between 2005 and 2014, we observed an increase in the events of overall stroke from 3.1% in 2005 to 5.0% in 2014 (p for the trend <.001). The number of ischemic stroke events (2.4%) was higher than hemorrhagic stroke (0.1%) during the study period. Presence of stroke was associated with higher in-hospital mortality (40.6 vs. 29.8%, 95% CI adjusted odds ratio: 1.57, 1.44-1.67; p < .0001 among stroke vs. without stroke).
The incidence of stroke events in CS-STEMI patients increased between 2005 and 2014, and is associated with higher in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and cost of hospitalization. The incidence of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke was higher with pMCS device use. Stroke prevention is a priority for CS-STEMI patients.
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