To investigate the preoperative morbidity of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and predictive risk factors associated with DVT after closed tibial shaft fracture.
Ultrasonography and blood analyses were performed preoperatively in patients who sustained tibial shaft fracture between October 2014 and December 2018. Univariate analyses were used in the data of demographics, comorbidities, mechanism of injury, concomitant fractures and laboratory biomarkers. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the independent risk factors associated with DVT.
In total, 918 patients with an operatively treated tibial shaft fracture were included, among whom 122 patients had preoperative DVTs, indicating a crude morbidity of 13.3%. Ninety-two of 758 (12.1%) patients with isolated tibial shaft fracture developed DVT, while 30 of 160 (18.8%) patients with concurrent fracture presented with DVT. The average interval between fracture and initial diagnosis of DVT was 3.1 days (median, 2 days), ranging from 0 to 33 days. Among DVT-positive patients, 16 (13.1%) patients presented with proximal DVT and 106 (86.9%) patients had distal DVT. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed four independent risk factors were significantly correlated to the development of DVT, including increased age (OR = 1.17, p = 0.003), diabetes (OR = 1.99, p = 0.009), serum hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase > 182 U/L (OR = 1.83, p = 0.008), and delay to DUS (in each day) (OR = 1.13, p < 0.001).
In the present cohort study, the incidence of DVT was 12.1% in patients with isolated tibial shaft fracture. We suggest individualized risk stratification and early anticoagulation for patients with high risk factors including pre-existing diabetes, HBDH > 182 U/L, delay to DUS and older age.
Level III, a prospective cohort study.