This study aimed to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on the risk of diabetes by assessing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in patients with gastroduodenal indolent lymphoma.
This retrospective study included patients with stage I extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or follicular lymphoma of the gastroduodenal region who were treated with Helicobacter pylori eradication and/or RT between 2000 and 2019 in our institution. Of total 79 patients with HbA1c test, 17 patients received RT (RT group), while 62 patients did not receive RT (Control group). A Diabetes-associated event (DAE) was defined as a ≥ 0.5% increase in HbA1c levels from baseline, and diabetes event (DE) were defined as HbA1c level of ≥ 6.5%.
During the median follow-up of 49 months, no local failure occurred after RT and no patients died of lymphoma. The RT group had significantly higher risk for DAEs on univariable analysis (hazard ratio [HR]=4.18; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.64-10.66; p < 0.01) and multivariable analysis (HR=3.68; 95% CI=1.42-9.56; p=0.01). Further, the DE risk was significantly higher in the RT group than in the control group (HR=4.32; 95% CI=1.08-17.30; p=0.04) and in patients with increased baseline HbA1c levels (HR=35.83; 95% CI=2.80-459.19; p=0.01). On multivariable analysis, RT significantly increased the risk of DEs (HR=4.55; 95% CI=1.08-19.19; p=0.04), even after adjusting baseline HbA1c level (HR=40.97; 95% CI=3.06-548.01; p=0.01).
Patients who received RT for gastroduodenal indolent lymphoma had an increased risk of diabetes compared to those who did not.