Bronchodilators are the cornerstone for treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), although some studies have shown that dual bronchodilators may exacerbate incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. Here, we evaluated the cardiopulmonary safety of indacaterol/glycopyrronium (IND/GLY) using a meta-analysis.
We searched PubMed, OVID, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases, using “indacaterol/glycopyrronium”, “indacaterol/glycopyrrolate”, “IND/GLY”, “QVA149”, “chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases”, “COPD”, “chronic obstructive airway disease”, “chronic obstructive lung disease” as key words. Acute exacerbation of COPD and FEV as indicators of pulmonary function and occurrence of hypertension, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction and heart failure as indicators of cardiovascular safety.
A total of 23 articles, comprising 21,238 participants, were included in the analysis. FEV values were significantly different compared to IND/GLY and single bronchodilator therapy (LABA or LAMA), with the MD 0.11 L (95%CI: 0.10-0.13, P<0.01). Hypertension was more frequent in the IND/GLY, than the single bronchodilator therapy group, although this difference was insignificant (IND/GLY vs LABA, RR=1.88, P = 0.09; IND/GLY vs LAMA, RR=1.42, P = 0.08; IND/GLY vs LABA+ICS, RR=1.85, P = 0.23). In addition, IND/GLY did not significantly increase the risk of myocardial infarction (IND/GLY vs LAMA or double therapy, total RR: 1.49, 95%CI: 0.72-3.08, P = 0.28), atrial fibrillation (IND/GLY vs LAMA, RR: 1.62, 95%CI: 0.64-4.10, P = 0.31) and heart failure (IND/GLY vs LAMA, RR: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.07-2.33, P = 0.31) in COPD patients.
IND/GLY significantly reduced incidence of acute COPD exacerbations, and slowed down the decline of FEV. Adequate safety measures are needed to control incidence of adverse cardiovascular events.

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