To describe the prevalence, clinical presentation and current treatment regimens of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs).
A systematic review was conducted. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar.
A total of 838 articles were identified, of which 36 were included in this review. The prevalence of IBD in PIDs ranges between 3.4% and 61.2%, depending on the underlying PID. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were reported in 64.3% and 52.4% of the patients, respectively. Colon ulceration was the most frequent finding on endoscopic evaluation, while cryptitis, granulomas, ulcerations and neutrophilic/lymphocytic infiltrates were the most frequently reported histopathological abnormalities. Described treatment regimens included oral corticosteroids and other oral immunosuppressive agents, including mesalazine, azathioprine and cyclosporin, leading to clinical improvement in the majority of patients. In case of treatment failure, biological therapies including TNF- α blocking agents, are considered.
The overall prevalence of IBD in patients with PID is high, but varies between different PIDs. Physicians should be aware of these complications and focus on characteristic symptoms to reduce diagnostic delay and delay in initiation of treatment. Treatment of IBD in PIDs depends on severity of symptoms and may differ between various PIDs based on distinct underlying pathogenesis. An individualized diagnostic and therapeutic approach is therefore warranted.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.