1. In this cross-sectional study, the odds of infertility in participants with a diet in the highest inflammatory index (DII) quartile were significantly higher than those in the lowest quartile (anti-inflammatory diet).
2. Furthermore, the prevalence of infertility was highest in participants with light daily physical activity compared to those with intense daily physical activity.
Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)
Infertility is a growing issue affecting 10-15% of women worldwide. Recent studies have looked at modifiable factors in treating infertility. Growing evidence suggests that dietary inflammation may be linked to infertility. However, the exact role that diet and lifestyle factors play in infertility remains poorly understood. Therefore, this study sought to evaluate the association between diet-related inflammation and infertility.
This cross-sectional study within the Ravansar non-communicable diseases (RaNCD) cohort consisted of 4,437 female participants living in Iran. All participants from the RaNCD cohort study aged 20-50 years who consented to participate were included in the study. Participants who had a malignancy, were following a special diet, or had neurological, hepatic, or endocrine diseases were excluded. Inflammatory diet assessments were determined using the Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), which was calculated using a 118-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The level of physical activity was assessed using a 22-item questionnaire. Details about infertility were based on a fertility history questionnaire administered to all participants. The primary outcome was the association between DII score and infertility.
The results demonstrated that among the 4,437 women in this study, 411 were infertile. The odds of infertility in the highest DII quartile (pro-inflammatory diet) were significantly higher than in the lowest quartile (anti-inflammatory diet). The prevalence of infertility was highest in participants with light daily physical activity compared to those with intense daily physical activity. However, the study was limited by its cross-sectional design, which prevented the ability to draw conclusions about causality between inflammatory diet and infertility. Nonetheless, the results suggested that modifiable lifestyle changes such as diet and physical activity could affect fertility.
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