Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic that affects patients with other pathologies. Here, we investigated the influence of treatments for osteoporosis and other non-inflammatory rheumatic conditions, such as osteoarthritis and fibromyalgia, on COVID-19 incidence. To this end, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 2,102 patients being treated at the Rheumatology Service of Hospital del Mar (Barcelona, Spain). In our cohort, COVID-19 cumulative incidence from March 1 to May 3, 2020 was compared to population estimates for the same city. We used Poisson regression models to determine the adjusted relative risk ratios for COVID-19 associated with different treatments and comorbidities. Denosumab, zoledronate and calcium were negatively associated with COVID-19 incidence. Some analgesics, particularly pregabalin and most of the studied antidepressants, were positively associated with COVID-19 incidence, whereas duloxetine presented a negative association. Oral bisphosphonates, vitamin D, thiazide diuretics, anti-hypertensive drugs and chronic non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had no effect on COVID-19 incidence in the studied population. Our results provide novel evidence to support the maintenance of the main anti-osteoporosis treatments in COVID-19 patients, which may be of particular relevance to elderly patients affected by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.