The results of radioactive iodine (RAI) treatment for Graves’ disease (GD) are related to the choice of diagnostic and dosimetry protocols, the steroid protection used, and the subsequent 131I dose. The effect of a high tissue-absorbed dose on the level of anti-thyroid antibodies (ATA) has been rarely considered.
To estimate the effect of the first RAI therapy with a dose of 250 Gy on anti-thyreoperoxidase (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor thyrotropin receptor antibody – TRAb levels in GD patients.
The analysis encompassed 46 consecutive patients with clinical presentation of GD. We examined the serum levels of TSH, free thyroxine (FT4), anti-TPO, TRAb, thyroid volume (ThV), 131I effective half-life (EHL), introduction of steroid protection, levothyroxine dose used in thyroid replacement therapy – TRT, and effectiveness of treatment.
As a result of RAI treatment, hypothyroidism was found in 35 patients (76.1%), euthyroidism in 7 patients (15.2%) and hyperthyroidism in 4 patients (8.7%). After RAI, we observed ThV reduction and increased anti-TPO (p = 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). It was found that a shorter EHL correlated with a higher baseline TRAb concentration and lower final anti-TPO serum concentration (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01, respectively). Lower final TRAb was found in patients with steroid protection (p = 0.049). Intergroup comparison of patients without steroid protection showed significantly higher final anti-TPO concentation (p = 0.02). Intergroup comparison of patients with TRT revealed significantly higher final anti-TPO concentration (p = 0.04).
The application of a high absorbed dose of 250 Gy in GD resulted in high efficacy of RAI therapy at 1-year follow-up. An increased ATA level and its relationships with EHL and ThV reduction were observed at 1-year follow-up. There is a possible relationship between steroid protection and anti-TPO concentration.