Insecticide use is the primary method of attempting to reduce or control the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Insecticide resistance is a major concern as resistance will limit the efficacy of vector-control efforts. The lower Rio Grande Valley region of South Texas has had autochthonous transmission of multiple mosquito-borne diseases including those caused by dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and Zika virus. However, the current status of mosquito resistance to commonly used pesticides in this region is unknown. In this study, we collected field samples from multiple municipalities in South Texas and assessed resistance using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention bottle bioassay. All populations exhibited characteristics of resistance, and permethrin was the most effective insecticide with an average mortality rate of 44.78%. Deltamethrin and sumethrin had significantly lower mortality rates of 20.31% and 32.16%, respectively, although neither of these insecticides are commonly used for vector-control activities in this region. Depending on which insecticide was used, there was little significance between each of the 7 cities. Seasonal variation in resistance was observed among the collection sites. Both deltamethrin and sumethrin exhibited an increase in susceptibility over the course of 10 months, while permethrin exhibited a decrease in susceptibility. These data highlight the need for further studies to determine if variations in resistance observed are repeated. The data and future findings may be useful in determining the most effective strategies for pesticide use and rotation.
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