The role of inspiratory effort has still to be determined as a potential predictors of non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) failure in acute hypoxic de novo respiratory failure (AHRF).
We explore the hypothesis that inspiratory effort might be a major determinant of NIV failure in these patients.
Thirty consecutive patients with AHRF admitted to a single center and candidates for a 24-hour NIV trial were enrolled. Clinical features, tidal changes in esophageal (ΔPes) and dynamic transpulmonary pressure (ΔPL), expiratory tidal volume, and respiratory rate were recorded on admission and 2-4-12-24 hours after NIV start, and were tested for correlation with outcomes.
ΔPes and ΔPes/ΔPL were significantly lower 2 hours after NIV start in patients who successfully completed the NIV trial (n=18) compared to those who needed endotracheal intubation (n=12) [median=11 (IQR=8-15) cmH2O vs 31.5 (30-36) cmH2O, p<0.0001] while other variables differed later. ΔPes was not related to other predictors of NIV failure at baseline. NIV-induced reduction in ΔPes of 10 cmH2O or more after 2 hours of treatment was strongly associated to avoidance of intubation, and represented the most accurate predictor of treatment success (OR=15, 95%CI 2.8-110, p=0.001, AUC=0.97, 95%CI 0.91-1, p<0.0001).
The magnitude of inspiratory effort relief as assessed by ΔPes variation within the first 2 hours of NIV was an early and accurate predictor of NIV outcome at 24 hours. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).