Bone remodeling occurs through the interactions of three major cell lineages, osteoblasts, which mediates bone formation, osteocytes, which derive from osteoblasts, sense mechanical force and direct bone turnover, and osteoclasts, which mediate bone resorption. However, multiple additional cell types within the bone marrow, including macrophages, T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes influence the process. The bone marrow microenvironment, which is produced, in part, by bone cells, forms a supporting network for B-lymphopoiesis. In turn, developing B-lymphocytes influence bone cells. Bone health during homeostasis depends on the normal interactions of bone cells with other lineages in the bone marrow. In disease state these interactions become pathologic and can cause the abnormal function of bone cells and the inadequate repair of bone after a fracture. This review summarizes what is known about the development of B lymphocytes and the interactions of B lymphocytes with bone cells in both health and disease.
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