Allergic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease primarily mediated by Th2 immune mechanisms. Exposure to antibiotics during early life is associated with an increased risk of allergic asthma, although the exact mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, mice were randomly divided into a normal saline control group (NS group), an OVA-induced asthma group (OVA group), a vancomycin treatment control group (VAN.NS group), and a vancomycin treatment the OVA-induced asthma group (VAN.OVA group). The results showed that vancomycin altered dominant species in experimental mice. The phylum level histogram showed that Bacteroides abundance was increased, and Firmicutes abundance was decreased in the OVA group. Airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were aggravated in the vancomycin-exposed group. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that the serum levels of IL-5, IL-13, and IL-33 in the OVA group were higher than those in the NS group, especially in the VAN.OVA group. The expression of GATA binding protein-3(GATA3) and retinoid acid receptor-related orphan receptor alpha (RORa) increased in the OVA group, even more so in the VAN.OVA group. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung detected by flow cytometry was increased in OVA mice more than those in control mice, with a more remarkable increase in the VAN.OVA. Our results demonstrated that vancomycin used in early life could alter the intestinal microecology of mice, which, in turn, aggravates airway inflammation and upregulate type 2 innate lymphocytes.
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