We aimed to investigate the effect of intrauterine administration of autologous hCG-activated PBMCs in RIF women with low Th-17/Treg cell ratio. 248 women with a history of implantation failure volunteered to receive PBMC-therapy. After immunologic consultation and doing flow cytometry analysis, 100 women with at least three IVF/ET failure who had low Th-17/Treg ratio in comparison with healthy control were enrolled in this study. These 100 patients were randomly divided into two groups as PBMC receiving (n = 50) and controls (n = 50). Then PBMCs were obtained from patients and treated with hCG for 48 h. Afterward, PBMCs were administered into the uterine cavity of the patient in the study group, two days before ET. The concentration of inflammatory cytokines was examined in the supernatant of cultured PBMCs after 2, 24, and 48 h of incubation using the ELISA method. The frequency of Th-17, Treg, and the Th-17/Treg ratio was significantly lower in RIF women than the healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The secretion of inflammatory cytokines was significantly higher after 48 h compared to 2 and 24 h (P < 0.0001). The pregnancy and live birth rate were significantly increased in women undergoing the PBMC-therapy compared to control (PBS-injecting) group (P = 0.032 and P = 0.047, respectively). The miscarriage rate was considerably lower in PBMC-therapy group (P = 0.029). Our findings suggest that intrauterine administration of autologous in vitro hCG-activated PBMCs improves pregnancy outcomes in patients with at least three IVF/ET failures.
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