Depression is among the most common neuropsychiatric disorders, and its prevalence is twofold higher in women than in men. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary fiber intake and depression in women by menopause status using data from a nationwide population-based survey conducted in Korea.
We utilized the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data for 2014, 2016, and 2018 with a complex sampling design. Dietary fiber intake was calculated according to the 24-hour recall method, and we used Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores to assess depression. A t test based on the general linear model was used to compare mean dietary fiber intake according to the presence of depression by menopause status. A logistic regression analysis was conducted to compute the odds ratio for depression according to the gradually adjusted model.
This study included 5,807 women. Among the premenopausal women, dietary fiber intake was higher in the nondepression group than in the depression group (P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference among postmenopausal women. Accordingly, among the premenopausal women, a significantly inverse relationship was observed between a change in daily dietary fiber intake as 1 g/1,000 kcal and the prevalence of depression in the fully adjusted model with an odds ratio of 0.949 (95% confidence interval, 0.906-0.993; P = 0.03). However, among the postmenopausal women, this significant association was not observed.
Dietary fiber intake was inversely associated with depression in premenopausal but not postmenopausal women.

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