HIV-infected individuals on chronic use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are more likely to develop adipose tissue and metabolic disorders, such as lipodystrophy (LD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The development of these phenotypes is known to be multifactorial. Thus, variants in genes implicated in adipogenesis and lipid metabolism may increase susceptibility to LD and MetS. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) may influence the outcome of these disturbances due to its role in the regulation of transcription factors involved in energy regulation. Therefore, we genotyped four polymorphisms located in SIRT1 (rs2273773 T>C, rs12413112 G>A, rs7895833 A>G, rs12049646 T>C) in 832 HIV-infected patients receiving HAART by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of LD was 55.8% and MetS was 35.3%. Lipoatrophy was the most prevalent subtype in all samples (38.0%) and showed significant difference between white and non-white individuals (P = 0.002). None of the genetic variants investigated in SIRT1 was associated with LD and MetS. White individuals and those in longer time of HAART use were more likely to develop LD. We concluded that these SIRT1 polymorphisms are not predictive factors to the development of lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome in HIV-infected individuals from Brazil.