Isobavachin is a phenolic with anti-osteoporosis activity. This study aimed to explore its metabolic fates in vivo and in vitro, and to investigate the potential drug-drug interactions involving CYPs and UGTs.
Metabolites of isobavachin in mice were first identified and characterized. Oxidation and glucuronidation study were performed using liver and intestine microsomes. Reaction phenotyping, activity correlation analysis and relative activity factor approaches were employed to identify the main CYPs and UGTs involved in isobavachin metabolism. Through kinetic modelling, inhibition mechanisms towards CYPs and UGTs were also explored.
Two glucuronides (G1 – G2) and three oxidated metabolites (M1 – M3) were identified in mice. Additionally, isobavachin underwent efficient oxidation and glucuronidation by human liver microsomes and HIM with CL values from 5.53 to 148.79 μl/min per mg. CYP1A2, 2C19 contributed 11.3% and 17.1% to hepatic metabolism of isobavachin, respectively, with CL values from 8.75 to 77.33 μl/min per mg. UGT1As displayed CL values from 10.73 to 202.62 μl/min per mg for glucuronidation. Besides, significant correlation analysis also proved that CYP1A2, 2C19 and UGT1A1, 1A9 were main contributors for the metabolism of isobavachin. Furthermore, mice may be the appropriate animal model for predicting its metabolism in human. Moreover, isobavachin exhibited broad inhibition against CYP2B6, 2C9, 2C19, UGT1A1, 1A9, 2B7 with K values from 0.05 to 3.05 μm.
CYP1A2, 2C19 and UGT1As play an important role in isobavachin metabolism. Isobavachin demonstrated broad-spectrum inhibition of CYPs and UGTs.

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