Socioeconomic deprivation is known to increase the risk of late presentation of many diseases. This is the largest study in United Kingdom investigating the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and acute primary angle closure (APAC).
A retrospective review of case notes was conducted of 718 consecutive patients who underwent laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in Edinburgh (Princess Alexandra Eye Pavilion) and Fife (Queen Margaret Hospital) between 2015 and 2019. Baseline demographics including sex, age, ethnicity, pre-existing diabetes, use of anti-depressants, and family history of glaucoma were collected. Deprivation was scored using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) Index 2020v2. A lower rank and decile indicate higher degrees of deprivation. We investigated differences in characteristics between patients who were referred routinely versus patients who referred as APAC.
The SIMD rank and deciles were consistently lower in patients who were referred urgently with APAC in both centres (P = <0.05) when compared to those referred routinely for LPI. On univariate and multivariate logistic regression, the presentation of APAC is negatively associated with SIMD Decile (OR = -0.101, 95% CI -0.178 to -0.026, P = 0.008) and family history of glaucoma (OR = -1.010, 95% CI -1.670 to -0.426, P = 0.001), and positively associated with age (OR = 0.029, 95% CI 0.009-0.049, P = 0.004).
Socioeconomic deprivation is an important risk factors for patients presenting with APAC. Socioeconomic deprivation should be incorporated into the design of glaucoma services and considered when triaging patients for prophylactic and therapeutic LPI and cataract surgery.