The present study was aimed to evaluate the isoxanthanol against Staphylococcus aureus chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in rat model. The isoxanthanol decreased the parasitic load by almost 99% in the Staphylococcus aureus infected rats. It significantly (P < 0.05) decreased mortality rate of the rats, prevented pulmonary tissue damage and aggregation of inflammatory cytokines. In Staphylococcus aureus infected rats, isoxanthanol treatment inhibited production of interleukin-18, interleukin-1β and TNF-α significantly (P < 0.05) in the BALF and pulmonary tissues. Treatment of the Staphylococcus aureus-infected rats with isoxanthanol inhibited up-regulation of NLRP3, ASC and caspase-1 expression. In Staphylococcus aureus-infected rats the expression of miR-145-5p was remarkably increased on treatment with isoxanthanol. In summary, isoxanthanol prevents Staphylococcus aureus-induced COPD in rats through up-regulation of miR-145-5p and suppression of inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, isoxanthanol can be of therapeutic importance for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus induced COPD.
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