Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) and type 2 diabetes are at risk of kidney, limb, and ophthalmic complications. We evaluated the rate of these complications and death in patients with NVAF and type 2 diabetes prescribed rivaroxaban or warfarin.
We analyzed Optum® de-Identified electronic health record (EHR) data from 11/2010-12/2019. We included adults with NVAF and T2D newly initiated on rivaroxaban or warfarin with ≥12 months of prior EHR activity. Patients with another indication for anticoagulation, valve disease, history of end-stage renal disease, major adverse limb events (MALE), diabetic retinopathy or pregnancy were excluded. We evaluated the incidence rate of developing a composite outcome of >40% decrease in estimated glomerular filtration incidence rate (eGFR) from baseline, eGFR <15 mL/minute/1.73 m2, need for dialysis or kidney transplant, MALE, diabetic retinopathy or death. Overlap weighting was used to balance baseline characteristics between cohorts while preserving sample size. Hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using propensity score-overlap weighted Cox regression.
We included 24,912 rivaroxaban and 58,270 warfarin users. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) CHA2DS2VASc score was 4.3 ± 1.5 and modified HASBLED score was 1.5 ± 0.8. Thirty percent of rivaroxaban patients were started on 15 mg once daily, with the rest prescribed 20 mg once daily. Warfarin patients had a mean time in therapeutic range of 47 ± 28%. Patients were followed for a mean of 2.89 ± 1.95 years. Rivaroxaban was associated with a reduced hazard of the composite outcome (HR =0.93, 95%CI =0.91-0.95; absolute risk reduction =1.97 events per 1000 patient-years; number needed-to-treat =51) versus warfarin. Rivaroxaban was also associated with significant reductions in the relative hazard of a >40% decrease in eGFR from baseline (HR =0.96), need for dialysis or renal transplant (HR =0.81), and limb revascularization or major amputation (HR =0.85). Death occurred at a lower incidence rate with rivaroxaban (HR =0.92, 95%CI =0.89-0.95).
Rivaroxaban was associated with reduced incidence rates of kidney and limb complications, and death in NVAF patients with type 2 diabetes compared to warfarin.