Some researchers have previously shown that RNAi knockdown of arginyl-tRNA synthetase (ArgRS) before or after a hypoxic injury can rescue animals from death, based on the model organism, C. elegans. However, there has been no study on the application of arginyl-tRNA synthetase knockdown in treating mammalian ischemic stroke, and its potential mechanism and effect on ischemic brain damage are still unknown. Here, we focused on the Rars gene, which encodes an arginyl-tRNA synthetase, and examined the effects of Rars knockdown in a permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion model in rats. To achieve this aim, adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given right cerebral cortex injections of short hairpin RNA (shRNA) adenovirus (AV) particles to knock down arginyl-tRNA synthetase, and a non-targeting control (NTC) vector or phosphate-buffered solution served as the controls. After 4 days, the rats were exposed to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). Then, the right cerebral cortex level of arginyl-tRNA synthetase was examined, and the effects of the Rars knockdown were evaluated by differences in infarction volume, oxidative stress, blood-brain barrier, mitochondrial function, and glucose metabolism at 1 day and 3 days after MCAO. The injection of shRNA adenovirus particles successfully suppressed the expression of arginyl-tRNA synthetase in the cerebral cortex. We observed an improvement in oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and glucose utilization and a reduction in brain edema compared with the non-targeting control rats with suppressed expression of arginyl-tRNA synthetase mRNA in the ipsilateral ischemic cortex of the brain. Our findings indicate that knockdown of arginyl-tRNA synthetase in the cerebral cortex exerted neuroprotective effects, which were achieved not only by the improvement of oxidative stress and glucose utilization but also by the maintenance of mitochondrial morphological integrity and the preservation of mitochondrial function. Knockdown of ArgRS administration could be a promising approach to protect ischemic stroke.