Secondary stroke prevention treatment is associated with an 80% reduction in risk of recurrent stroke. But one out of every four strokes are recurrent. Adherence to pharmacological therapy and strict control of risk factors are essential for prevention of recurrent strokes.
Pair matched incident case control study was done to find out the factors associated with stroke recurrence after first ever stroke. Incident cases of recurrent strokes and age and post stroke period matched controls were recruited prospectively. The estimated sample size for the study was 70 matched pairs. Data collected from medical records and by visiting their homes. Analysis was done using R statistical software.
Bivariate analysis showed cardio embolic stroke subtype, poor lipid control, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, medication nonadherence, presence of depression, memory problems no discharge advice at index admission and low income were associated increased risk of recurrence. Higher mean NIHSS score and a greater number of days of hospitalisation during index stroke had less risk of recurrence. Conditional logistic regression analysis revealed non adherence to medication (OR 7.46, 1.67-33.28) and not receiving discharge advice at index admission (OR 10.79, 2.38-49.02) were associated with increased risk of recurrence whereas lacunar stroke (OR 0.08, 0.01-0.59) and a greater number of days of hospitalization during index stroke (OR 0.82, 0.67-0.99) were associated with less risk of recurrence.
Individualised patient education regarding stroke, recurrence risk, medication adherence, healthy lifestyle and risk factor control can reduce stroke recurrence risk.