Barrett’s esophagus (BE) is a well-established risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. Our objective was to investigate the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on BE risk.
We searched PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science up to 30 September 2020. The summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the highest versus lowest categories of exposure were assessed. Analyses of subgroup, dose-response, sensitivity, and publication bias were conducted.
Sixty-two studies were included that involved more than 250,157 participants and 22,608 cases. Seven lifestyle factors were investigated: smoking, alcohol, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, sleep time, medication, and diet. We observed statistically significant increased BE risks for smoking (RR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.16-1.57), alcohol intake (RR = 1.23, 95% CI = 1.13-1.34), body fatness (RR = 1.08, 95% CI = 1.03-1.13), less sleep time (RR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.24-2.49), and proton pump inhibitors use (RR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.17-2.29). Reduced risks of BE were found for aspirin (RR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.58-0.84) and the intake of vitamin C (RR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.44-0.80), folate (RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.31-0.71), and fiber (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.93-0.97). The quality of most included studies was high and the subgroup analysis according to the quality score showed significant results (p < 0.05). There was no publication bias for smoking and alcohol. Although the analysis suggested significant evidence of publication bias for BMI, sensitivity analysis showed that the changes in the recalculated RRs were not significant.
The large meta-analysis revealed that lifestyle modifications could reduce the risks of BE and, consequently, esophageal adenocarcinoma.

© 2021 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.