Tachykinin signaling system is present in both vertebrates and invertebrates, and functions as neuromodulator responsible for the regulation of various physiological processes. In human, the internalization of G protein-coupled receptors has been extensively characterized; however, the insect GPCR internalization has been rarely investigated. Here, we constructed two expression vectors of Bombyx tachykinin-related peptide receptor (BmTKRPR) fused with Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) at the C-terminal end for direct visualization of receptor expression, localization, and trafficking in cultured mammalian HEK293 and insect Sf21 cells. Our results demonstrated that agonist-activated BmTKRPR underwent rapid internalization in a dose-and time-dependent manner via a clathrin-dependent pathway in both HEK293 and Sf21 cells. Further investigation via RNAi or specific inhibitors, or co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated that agonist-induced BmTKRPR internalization was mediated by PKC, GRK5 and β-arrestin2/BmKurtz. In addition, we also observed that most of the internalized BmTKRP receptors were recycled to the cell surface via early endosomes upon peptide ligand removal. Our study provides the first in-depth information on mechanisms underlying insect TKRP receptor internalization and perhaps aids in the interpretation of the signaling in the regulation of physiological processes.
Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier B.V.