Follicular hyperplasias (FHs) with light chain-restricted (LCR) plasmacytoid/plasma cells (PCs) within germinal centers (GCs) based on immunohistochemistry (IHC)/in situ hybridization (ISH) can potentially lead to diagnostic error. This study aims to better characterize such cases, including their clinical implications.
LC expression by IHC/ISH was quantitatively assessed in GCs of 17 FHs with LCRGCs. BCL2, CD10, BCL6, BCL2, immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains, IgG4, and Epstein-Barr encoding region stains were performed. In total, 8 cases had polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based clonality studies.
All cases showed FH, including 4 with progressively transformed GCs (PTGCs); 0.8% to 52% (median, 21%) of the GCs were LCR; 13 of 17 had both κ- and λ-LCRGCs, and 4 of 17 had only κ-LCRGCs; 7 of 16 had prominent intrafollicular IgG4-positive cells. One case demonstrated BCL2-positive cells in focal LCRGCs but lacked BCL2 rearrangement. B-cell monoclonality was demonstrated in 3 of 8 cases (only after microdissection). Seven patients had autoimmune disorders, and 1 had had a transplant. Three patients had a history of lymphoma, 1 developed lymphoma, and 1 developed lymphomatoid granulomatosis subsequently.
FHs with LCRGC by IHC/ISH are typically not associated with the development of lymphoma, even though they can express BCL2 and show monoclonality by PCR. They may be associated with increased intrafollicular IgG4-positive cells, PTGC, and autoimmunity.

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