Stroke is the second cause of death after myocardial infarction, and the main cause of acquired disability. Patients with ischaemic stroke have a higher risk of future vascular events, including recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and death by vascular cause. The initial epidemiological studies demonstrated a weak or non-existent relationship between cholesterolaemia and stroke. Subsequently, statin intervention trials showed a reduction in the risk of recurrence of cerebrovascular events. The Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL), the first clinical trial designed to assess effects of statin therapy in secondary stroke prevention, highlighted the reduction of stroke recurrence with atorvastatin 80mg/daily in patients with a recent ischaemic established or transient stroke, with a modest increase in the rate of haemorrhagic stroke. Successive studies have also reported the benefits of statin therapy combined with ezetimibe or PCSK9 inhibitors in primary and secondary ischaemic stroke prevention. Since 80% of recurrent cerebrovascular events could be prevented, it is considered of interest to carry out a narrative review of the benefits of lipid-lowering therapy in the secondary prevention of ischaemic cerebrovascular disease.
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