Metabolic reprogramming is recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Lipids are the essential biomolecules required for membrane biosynthesis, energy storage, and cell signaling. Altered lipid metabolism allows tumor cells to survive in the nutrient-deprived environment. However, lipid metabolism remodeling in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has not received the same attention as in other cancers. RCC, the most common type of kidney cancer, is associated with almost 15,000 death in the USA annually. Being refractory to conventional chemotherapy agents and limited available targeted therapy options has made the treatment of metastatic RCC very challenging. In this article, we review recent findings that support the importance of synthesis and metabolism of cholesterol, free fatty acids (FFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the carcinogenesis and biology of RCC. Delineating the detailed mechanisms underlying lipid reprogramming can help to better understand the pathophysiology of RCC and to design novel therapeutic strategies targeting this malignancy.© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.
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Larry H Matherly