The presence of erectile dysfunction (ED) drugs in adulterated dietary supplements, mainly in pharmaceutical dosage forms, is frequently addressed in the literature. Little attention is given to food products despite their increasing adulteration trend. To address this knowledge gap targeted, suspected-target, and non-targeted strategies were utilised to analyse ED drugs and their analogues in powdered drink mix (PDM), honey, jelly, hard candy, and sugar-coated chewing gum using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The method was optimised and validated using 23 target analytes, representing different ED drugs with structural similarities. The modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) extraction exhibited insignificant matrix effect (ME) within – 9.2-8.8% and provided complete coverage of target analytes with acceptable extraction recovery (RE) within 75.5-123.9%, except for carbodenafil in the PDM matrix. Based on the ME and RE performance, the analytical method was validated to analyse 25 food samples that claimed to enhance male sexual performance. The method exhibited good specificity and linearity with a limit of detection within 10-70 ng/mL and limit of quantification of 80 ng/mL. Similarly, the accuracy and precision were satisfactory within 77.4-122.0% and< 16.7%RSD, respectively. The LC-HRMS targeted analysis, together with suspected-target and non-targeted screenings, identified and detected ten ED drugs from 24 food samples. The modified QuEChERS extraction with LC-HRMS-based method was demonstrated to be universally applicable to various food products, covering an extensive range of known and potentially novel ED drugs, which is valuable for routine casework.
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