Annually, approximately 50,000 patients undergo hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) worldwide with almost 22,000 of these patients receiving HCT in the United States. HCT is a curative option for a wide range of hematologic malignancies and advances in transplantation medicine have resulted in an increase in HCT survivors. It is anticipated that the number of HCT survivors will more than double from 242,000 in 2020 to approximately 500,000 in 2030. Survivors of HCT are at an increased risk of developing late complications due to exposure to chemotherapy and/or radiation in the pre-, peri-, and post-HCT phases and these cumulative exposures have the potential to damage normal tissue. This tissue damage leads to the early onset of chronic health conditions resulting in premature mortality in HCT survivors, who have a 15-year cumulative incidence of severe or life-threatening chronic health conditions exceeding 40%. Due to the significant burden of morbidity in HCT survivors and the delay in the development of long-term complications, this delicate patient population requires life-long monitoring due to the risk for neuropsychological, cardiac, pulmonary, renal, hepatic, ocular, skeletal, cardiac, endocrine, fertility, and sexual health complications as well as secondary neoplasms. This review will focus on recent advances in screening, monitoring, and therapeutics for late-occurring or long-term complications in HCT survivors.
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