Anxiety disorders are common comorbidities of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conversely, ADHD is prevalent among anxious youths. A variety of treatments, both psychopharmacological and nonpsychopharmacological, are used to manage combined ADHD/anxiety disorder. This article aims to review the literature on the treatment of ADHD with comorbid anxiety disorders, and make evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. In most cases, when ADHD is the primary condition, stimulants are the first-line of treatment, frequently resulting not only in improvement in ADHD symptoms but also alleviating the symptoms of the comorbid anxiety disorder. Stimulant treatment is relatively safe and well-tolerated in ADHD with comorbid anxiety disorder. When the stimulant administration does not attenuate the severity of the comorbid anxiety disorder, a treatment that targets specifically the anxiety disorder should be added. This recommendation, however, might be challenged by the impressive efficacy of atomoxetine for both the ADHD and anxiety disorder symptoms. Adjunctive cognitive-behavior therapy for anxiety disorder symptoms is strongly recommended and is considered superior to medication alone. Other options include adding pharmacological treatment for the anxiety symptoms. In moderate and severe cases of comorbid Ads, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors can be added to the stimulants, with the required caution.
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