The global incidence of breast cancer is increasing, as is the efficacy of treatments. Consequently, increasing survival rates reinforce the importance of survivorship issues, including posttreatment menopausal symptoms, sexual function, and mental health and well-being. Breast cancer patients can experience a range of menopausal symptoms associated with their treatment. Most commonly women may experience vasomotor symptoms, including hot flushes and night sweats. Particularly for women on maintenance tamoxifen therapy, up to 80% will experience hot flushes, with almost one-third of these women reporting severe symptoms. Breast cancer patients may also experience genitourinary symptoms of menopause, which may include vaginal dryness and irritation, dyspareunia, and dysuria. Hormonal therapy has long been established as the most effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms. However, the hormonal nature of breast malignancies renders systemic hormone therapies unsuitable for these patients, posing a unique treatment challenge, which may result in clinicians not feeling confident to manage them. Consequently, this review outlines pharmacological and nonpharmacological options for women with bothersome menopausal symptoms after breast cancer treatment and provides practical, evidence-based guidance for clinicians.
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