Marine debris is widespread worldwide, from coastal areas to remote protected oceanic islands. We assessed marine macro-debris on the shores of Fernando de Noronha, an archipelago 360 km off Brazil that encompasses no-take and multiple-use areas. The windward uninhabited coast, more exposed to oceanic currents and winds and inside a no-take area, presented higher abundance of plastic debris. The leeward coast, within the multiple-use urban area, presented more disposable plastics and cigarette butts. These patterns may be explained by the marine debris transportation by ocean currents to the windward side and by locally generated debris by the high quantity of beach users in the leeward coast. These results indicate that oceanographic characteristics and tourism infrastructure play important roles in the accumulation of marine debris in a protected archipelago. They also serve as a baseline for future monitoring initiatives and to improve strategies to tackle plastic pollution within this remote archipelago.