The intrauterine and early life environments have been linked to the etiology of breast cancer in prior studies. We prospectively examined whether maternal and newborn anthropometric factors as reported by the mother are related to an increased incidence of adult breast cancer in the daughter. We used data from 35,133 mother-daughter dyads of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) II and the Nurses’ Mothers’ Cohort Study. In 2001, living mothers of NHS II participants who were free of cancer completed a questionnaire on their pregnancy with the nurse and their nurse daughter’s early life experience. During 403,786 years of follow-up, 865 daughters developed incident cases of invasive breast cancer. Nurses with a birthweight of ≥4000 g had a 32% greater risk for breast cancer (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.02-1.71, p-trend = 0.09) compared with those with birthweights of 3000-3499 g. Higher birth length tended to increase risk of premenopausal breast cancer (p for trend = 0.05). We further noted a modest U-shaped relation between maternal weight gain during pregnancy and premenopausal breast cancer incidence in the daughter. Fetal growth may contribute to shaping later life risk for breast cancer, especially prior to menopause.