Sepsis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the pregnant patient. Injection drug use in pregnant populations has led to increased cases of bacteremia and infective endocarditis (IE) due to . We describe all cases of bacteremia and IE among admitted pregnant patients at our hospital over a 6-year period.
This was a retrospective review of pregnant patients hospitalized with bacteremia between April 2013 and November 2019. Maternal in-hospital mortality and fetal in-hospital mortality were the primary outcomes measured; the secondary outcome was the rate of 6-month maternal readmission.
Twenty-seven patients were included; 15 (56%) had IE. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) age was 29 (25-33) years; 22 (82%) patients had methicillin-resistant . Infection onset occurred at a median (IQR) of 29 (23-34) weeks’ gestation. Twenty-three (85%) mothers reported active injection drug use, and 21 (78%) were hepatitis C seropositive. Fifteen (56%) mothers required intensive care unit (ICU) care. Twenty-two (81%) patients delivered 23 babies; of the remaining 5 mothers, 3 (11%) were lost to follow-up and 2 (7%) terminated pregnancy. Sixteen (73%) babies required neonatal ICU care, and 4/25 (16%) infants/fetuses died during hospitalization. One (4%) mother died during hospitalization, and 7/26 (27%) mothers were readmitted to the hospital within 6 months for infectious complications.
Injection drug use is a modifiable risk factor for bacteremia in pregnancy. Fetal outcomes were poor, and mothers were frequently readmitted secondary to infection. Future targeted interventions are needed to curtail injection drug use in this population.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.