Timely diagnosis and treatment of increased intracranial pressure can decrease morbidity and prevent mortality. The present meta-analysis aims to determine the mean value of the ONSD measured in patients with various elevated ICP etiologies under different clinical settings, as well as comparing the value of ONSD between patients with and without elevated ICP.
This meta-analysis complied with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis Statement8. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched to identify ONSD measured by US for patients with increased ICP from establishment to October 2020.
A total of 779 patients with elevated ICP among 22 studies were included in the present meta-analysis. Studies were published between 2003 and 2020. Eighteen were comparative (18/22, 81.8%), and four were single-armed study (4/22, 18.2%). Twenty were prospective studies (20/22, 90.9%). There was moderate-to-high heterogeneity based on the prediction ellipse area and variance logit of sensitivity and specificity.
The mean value of the ONSD among patients diagnosed with increased ICP was 5.82 mm (95% CI 5.58-6.06 mm). Variations were observed based on etiology of intracranial hypertension, clinical settings where ONSD was measured, and standards for diagnosing intracranial hypertension. The US-ONSD among patient with elevated ICP was significantly higher than the normal control. Although a cut-off value is not clearly determined, these mean values can be implemented to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of US-ONSD in diagnosing intracranial hypertension in future studies.