Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into mature chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. Excessive and dysfunctional visceral adipocytes increase upon menopause and importantly contribute to altered metabolism in post-menopausal women. We previously showed both plasma membrane and nuclear estrogen receptors alpha (ERα) with endogenous estrogen are required to suppress adipogenesis in-vivo. Here we determined mechanisms by which these liganded ER pools collaborate to inhibit the peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma (PPARγ) gene and subsequent progenitor differentiation. In 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC), membrane ERα signaled through PI3K-AKT to enhance ERα nuclear localization, importantly at the PPARγ gene promoter. AKT also increased overall abundance and recruitment of co-repressors GATA3, β-catenin, and TCF4 to the PPARγ promoter. Membrane ERα signaling additionally enhanced wingless-integrated (Wnt)1 and 10b expression. The components of the repressor complex were required for estrogen to inhibit Rosiglitazone induced differentiation of ADSC and 3T3-L1 cells to mature adipocytes. These mechanisms whereby ER cellular pools collaborate to inhibit gene expression limit progenitor differentiation to mature adipocytes.
Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Endocrine Society 2020. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.