TZP4 is a triazine-based amphipathic polymer designed to mimic the amphipathic structure found in antimicrobial peptides. TZP4 showed potent antimicrobial activity comparable to melittin against antibiotic-resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. TZP4 showed high resistance to proteolytic degradation and low tendency to develop drug resistance. The results from membrane depolarization, SYTOX Green uptake, flow cytometry, and gel retardation revealed that the mechanism of antimicrobial action of TZP4 involved an intracellular target rather than the bacterial cell membrane. Furthermore, TZP4 suppressed the mRNA levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and inhibited the release of nitric oxide (NO) and TNF-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. BODIPY-TR-cadaverine displacement and dissociation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled LPS assays revealed that TZP4 strongly bound to LPS and disaggregated the LPS oligomers. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that TZP4 inhibits the binding of FITC-conjugated LPS to RAW264.7 cells. These observations indicate that TZP4 may exert its anti-endotoxic activity by directly binding with LPS and inhibiting the interaction between LPS and CD14 cells. Collectively, TZP4 is a promising drug candidate for the treatment of endotoxic shock and sepsis caused by gram-negative bacterial infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.