Idiopathic or “unexplained” infertility represents as many as 30% of infertility cases worldwide. Conception, implantation, and term delivery of developmentally healthy infants require chromosomally normal (euploid) eggs and sperm. The crux of euploid egg production is error-free meiosis. Pathologic genetic variants dysregulate meiotic processes that occur during prophase I, meiotic resumption, chromosome segregation, and in cell-cycle regulation. This dysregulation can result in chromosomally abnormal (aneuploid) eggs. In turn, egg aneuploidy leads to a broad range of clinical infertility phenotypes, including primary ovarian insufficiency and early menopause, egg fertilization failure and embryonic developmental arrest, or recurrent pregnancy loss. Therefore, maternal genetic variants are emerging as infertility biomarkers, which could allow informed reproductive decision-making. Here, we select and deeply examine human genetic variants that likely cause dysregulation of critical meiotic processes in 14 female infertility-associated genes: SYCP3, SYCE1, TRIP13, PSMC3IP, DMC1, MCM8, MCM9, STAG3, PATL2, TUBB8, CEP120, AURKB, AURKC, and WEE2. We discuss the function of each gene in meiosis, explore genotype-phenotype relationships, and delineate the frequencies of infertility-associated variants.