To understand the prevalence of asthma and its variation over time in children aged 0-14 years in China. The studies on the prevalence of asthma in children in China were systematically retrieved from China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang Data, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP) and PubMed databases. The search time was up to June 2019, and the study site was located in the asthma surveillance cities. Random effect model was used to calculate the combined prevalence of asthma and its 95% confidence interval (). The subgroup analysis was conducted by period, sex and region. All analyses were performed by using Stata 15.1 and R Studio software. Among 2 624 articles, 67 met the eligibility criteria, and the survey time was from 1989 to 2015. A total of 1 661 076 children were involved and 40 737 asthma cases were confirmed from 26 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. The prevalence of asthma varied greatly among different studies, ranging from 0.5% to 9.82%. Meta-analysis showed that the combined prevalence of asthma in Chinese children aged 0-14 was 2.6% (95%: 2.1%-3.1%), about 3.2% (95%: 2.6%-3.8%) for boys and 1.9% (95%: 1.6%-2.3%) for girls. The subgroup analysis showed a significant variation of the prevalence over different years, genders and regions (<0.05). The prevalence of asthma in boys was consistently higher than that of girls. The overall prevalence of asthma showed an upward trend. Before 2010, the prevalence of asthma in the eastern region was higher than that in the central and western regions. The prevalence of asthma across regions showed a significant change and the prevalence of asthma in the central region was significantly higher than that in the eastern and western regions from 2010 to 2015 (<0.05). The asthma prevalence of children aged 0-14 in China is generally increasing, and the prevalence rate of boys is higher than that of girls. The prevalence rate in the central region is significantly higher than that in the eastern region from 2010 to 2015, suggesting that those regions should strengthen the early prevention and intervention of asthma and implement a sex-specific information dissemination strategy.